|image of Duplicibothrium minutum from figures in the paper|
|photo of Rhodobothrium paucitesticulare |
from figures in the paper
Unlike some parasitic flukes that can alter the burrowing behaviour of clams and other bivalves, neither tapeworm caused much noticeable harm to the host clams. The presence of D. minutum caused some minor enlargement at the opening of the digestive glands, but there were no signs of inflammation, and the R. paucitesticulare larvae seem to be completely benign and did not affect the clam's health at all. So while those tapeworms seems to be very common in the clam population, they were not causing nearly enough harm to be considered responsible for the mass die-off.
de Buron I, Roth PB, Bergquist DC, Knott DM. (2013) Mulinia lateralis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) die-off in South Carolina: discovery of a vector for two elasmobranch cestode species. Journal of Parasitology 99: 51-55